Under Virginia law, an absolute privilege protects speakers and writers from defamation claims when their statements are made in certain contexts. Absolute privilege may apply if the statement claimed to be defamatory was made in connection with (1) judicial proceedings (including preliminary proceedings sufficiently related to judicial proceedings); (2) proceedings before the Virginia Employment Commission; (3) proceedings of bodies creating legislation; or (4) military or navel communications among officers. If the absolute privilege does apply, the statement is completely immune, even if knowingly false and made maliciously. The maker of an absolutely privileged communication is accorded complete protection against defamation claims. (See Lindeman v. Lesnick, 268 Va. 532, 537 (2004)). This is far stronger protection than offered by qualified privilege, which provides only limited protection that can be defeated upon a showing of malice or other bad faith.
By far the most common situation in which absolute privilege is invoked involves statements made in the course of a judicial proceeding. If someone lies about you in court, you can’t turn around and sue the person for slander. The adversarial judicial system is designed to allow fact finders to consider the evidence and determine the truth, and it’s a given that not every statement made by testifying witnesses in court will be truthful. There are also potential penalties for perjury for untrue statements made in court. For these and other reasons, Virginia courts have long held that statements made in connection with judicial proceedings are protected by an absolute “judicial privilege” against defamation liability, at least when they are relevant and pertinent to the matter under inquiry. (See Darnell v. Davis, 190 Va. 701, 707 (1950)). The absolute judicial privilege protects not only witness statements made orally in court, but all statements in connection with the proceeding, including pleadings and statements made during depositions and discovery.