When a party or an attorney files an objectively baseless defamation complaint, the trial court is required to impose sanctions on one or both of them, including but not limited to an award of attorneys’ fees. This is the main takeaway from Nestler v. Scarabelli decided a few days ago by the Virginia Court of Appeals. Litigation attorneys in both state and federal court are required to adhere not only to codes of ethics but also to procedural rules that prohibit using litigation for an improper purpose. Under Virginia Code § 8.01-271.1, any time a lawyer signs and files a complaint on behalf of a client, the lawyer is certifying that “to the best of his knowledge, information and belief, formed after reasonable inquiry, [the complaint] is well grounded in fact and is warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law, and…is not interposed for any improper purpose, such as to harass or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation.” The court found that Dr. Scarabelli violated that rule by filing a defamation claim against Dr. Nestler that had no reasonable chance of success. Consequently, the trial court was not only permitted but required to impose an appropriate punishment.
MCV Associated Physicians (“MCVAP”) hired Dr. Tiziano M. Scarabelli as the Virginia Commonwealth University Health Systems’ Director of Cardio-Oncology on a one-year contract. After only a few months, MCVAP had received several complaints from staff members about Dr. Scarabelli’s alleged lack of professionalism. MCVAP also received complaints about Dr. Scarabelli from interns, residents, and patients, some of which appeared to constitute allegations of sexual harassment, such as claims that Dr. Scarabelli was “very touchy feely,” would put his hands on women’s thighs, and would often comment on the physical attractiveness of women. There were also claims he was just rude, “always putting down other physicians.” After a year, MCVAP decided not to renew Dr. Scarabelli’s contract.